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Title [REGULAR PAPER] A 3-dimensional Modified Vernier Time-to-digital Converter for LiDAR Sensors
Authors (Ying He) ; (Ji-Eun Joo) ; (Sung Min Park)
Page pp.543-551
ISSN 1598-1657
Keywords DLL; edge-detector; LiDAR sensor; T-latch; Vernier TDC
Abstract This paper presents a three-dimensional (3-D) modified Vernier time-to-digital converter (MV-TDC) for the applications of light detection and ranging (LiDAR) sensors. The proposed 3-D MV-TDC combines a 2-D modified Vernier TDC and a delay-lock loop (DLL) that is preceded by an XOR and an edge-detector as its input circuitry, so that the former provides 4-bit coarse digital codes while the latter generates 4-bit fine codes during the high-state of DLL that is maintained only between each rising edge of START and STOP pulses. Then, the measured detection range of a LiDAR sensor can be represented by an 8-bit digital code. The proposed 3-D MV-TDC were implemented in a 0.13-?m CMOS process, demonstrating the measured dynamic range of 43.2 dB that corresponds to the detection range of 18.8 centimeters~28.6 meters. The chip dissipates 2.9 mW from a single 1.2-V supply, while its core occupies the area of 0.37 x 0.89 mm2.